M1 Mac with External Booting SSD fails with Thunderbolt connection, But Not with a USB. why?

I’m using an M1 Macbook Air with macOS installed on External booting SSD as my primary system. (with a Satechi USB-C Slim Multi-Port with Ethernet Adapter Connected to 1 External Display, and Cheap Wacom tablet)

and what’s so weird is that the Mac fails to boot when I’m using a Thunderbolt as a connection between Mac and the booting SSD, but successfully boots when I make a connection through a USB.

(I’m Using an SK Hynix Gold P31 1TB NVMe SSD, ORICO-M234C3-U4 (40Gb speed, USB 2/3/4, and Thunderbolt 3/4 compatible.) NVMe SSD Enclosure, with Apple Official Thunderbolt 4 (3 also compatible) 1m Pro cable as of now.)

but another weird thing is that it only happens when I connect both External SSD into one port (with a Thunderbolt connection), and a USB adapter into another port at the same time before booting. even if that USB adapter has no connection to any peripheral devices.

and if I just use this by Connect the USB Adaptor after booting. it suddenly stops responding and reboots (and of course boots fail) when I use picture in-picture function!! (From Safari, i didn’t try anything else)

or it just kernel panicking when SD card is connected…….(through Adaptor)(time to time)

and it’s not for just certain macOS versions. I tried almost every version for M1, Monterey, Ventura, and Sonoma. all the same problem.

if both USB Adapter and External SSD are connected in each port at the same time before boot, and if this External SSD connection is Through a USB cable(with no Thunderbolt support.). it boots and works just fine.

given all of my External SSD components are Thunderbolt 3 compatible, and this booting failure only happens when I make a connection between Mac and External SSD through a Thunderbolt 3 and above compatible cable. I think this failure is something to do with a thunderbolt function.

I tried multiple Cables with different connection support. and also different USB Adaptor (from no name brand to belkin to Satechi) but the results are the same. if the cable that I’m using has to do with anything about Thunderbolt. it fails.

I looked into what exactly was happening, and I realized the Mac did not recognize the external SSD at all with the problematic setting, i even got into the internal SSD macOS system and opened the Disk Utility. but nothing appears. (yeah I tell them to show every hidden disks).

(to do that, i connected both USB adaptor and External SSD onto mac, and for the external SSD, through Thunderbolt Compatible Cable. and set the Default Booting Disk as a Internal Drive. and restart, or shut down and boot.)

so i bought a thunderbolt 3 dock (HyperDrive Thunderbolt 3 Mobile Dock) thinking maybe providing a different protocol while booting is cause of this problm. but no. even with the Thunderbolt Dock, it just fails to boot. and the same problem.

at this point i have no idea what to do…… could you guys provide any insights or idea about this problem? i asked this at multiple platform (reddit, apple community etc.) but no luck……

(Kinda) Solved: the previously failed configuration, i’ll be it for now only for the USB Hub. it works when i connect them to a power during booting. No failure whatsoever. Seems Mac failed To recognize the Drive out of lack of enough power while being connected to all the peripherals. But the Thunderbolt dock is keep failing even with power being provided. Suspecting the huge power consumption of the Thunderbolt Dock over a USB Hub.